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HTML is a markup language for describing web documents (web pages). HTML was invented in 1990 by a scientist called Tim Berners-Lee. The purpose was to make it easier for scientists at different universities to gain access to each other's research documents. The project became a bigger success than Tim Berners-Lee had ever imagined. By inventing HTML he laid the foundation for the web as we know it today.
HTML is a language, which makes it possible to present information (e.g. scientific research) on the Internet. What you see when you view a page on the Internet is your browser's interpretation of HTML.
HTML is an abbreviation of "HyperText Mark-up Language" - which is already more than you need to know at this stage.
Hyper is the opposite of linear. In the good old days - when a mouse was something the cat chased - computer programs ran linearly: when the program had executed one action it went to the next line and after that, the next line and so on. But HTML is different - you can go wherever you want and whenever you want. For example, it is not necessary to visit MSN.com before you visit HTML.net.
Text is self-explanatory.
Mark-up is what you do with the text. You are marking up the text the same way you do in a text editing program with headings, bullets and bold text and so on.
Language is what HTML is. It uses many English words.
HTML documents are described by HTML tags
Each HTML tag describes different document content
XHTML stands for Extensible HyperText Markup Language
XHTML is almost identical to HTML
XHTML is stricter than HTML
XHTML is HTML defined as an XML application
XHTML is supported by all major browsers